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Pechay Production Guide


Introduction

         Pechay (Brassica rapa L. cv group Pak Choi) is an erect, biennial herb, cultivated as an annual about 15-30 cm tall in vegetative stage. Ovate leaves are arranged spirally and spreading. The petioles are enlarged and grow upright forming a subcylindrical bundle. Inflorescence is a raceme with pale yellow flowers. Seeds are 1 mm in diameter and are reddish to blackish brown in color.

Uses and Nutritional Value

        Pechay is used mainly for its immature, but fully expanded tender leaves. The succulent petioles are often the preferred part. It is used as main ingredient for soup and stir-fried dishes. In Chinese cuisine, its green petioles and leaves are also used as garnish.

Each 100 g fresh edible portion contains:


Nutrient                        Amount
Water                           93.0 g
Protein                         1.7 g
Fat                               0.2 g
Carbohydrates               3.1 g
Fiber                             0.7 g
Ash                              0.8 g
B-carotene                    2.3 g
Vitamin C                    53.0 mg
Calcium                     102.0 mg
Phosphorus                 46.0 mg
Iron                              2.6 mg
Energy Value               86.0 kJ

Production Management

Varieties

Black Behi; Hari Digma; Shin Kang
Gengis Khan; Shanhai No. 2

Climatic and Soil Requirements

         Pechay can be grown from low to mid elevations throughout the year. Production is best, however, during the dry season in sandy to clay loam soil, with a pH of 5.5-6.5.

Planting

A1-ha production area requires kg seeds.

        Pechay can either be sown directly in soil or transplanted. Direct seeding is carried out by broadcasting or by sowing in rows. Cover seeds to a depth of about 1 cm by raking or spreading additional topsoil. Water immediately after sowing. Plant spacing should be 10 cm between plants and 20 cm between rows.

       If transplanted, sow seeds initially in seedbeds. Transplant seedlings 2-3 weeks after sowing at a distance of 10 cm between plants and 20 cm between rows. Transplant preferably in the afternoon and water immediately. Mulch with grass clippings or rice straw.

Fertilization

       Apply seedlings with starter solution using urea (46-0-0) at the rate of 2 tbsp/gal of water. Side-dress along the rows at the rate of 1 tbsp/plant one week after transplanting.

Pest and Disease Management

      Damping-off, soft rot and clubroot are the most important diseases of pechay, while diamondback moth and aphids are the major insect pests. Spraying hot pepper extract can control these pests. When seedlings begin to wilt, reduce watering immediately. Uproot and burn disease-infected plants to prevent spread of diseases. Cultivation is also necessary to minimize weeds.

Harvesting

      Harvest as early as three weeks after planting or between 30-40 days after sowing. Harvest preferably in the afternoon to minimize postharvest losses.

      Upon harvesting, wash the plants, trim old leaves and remove roots. Grade according to size and quality, and pack in strong rigid containers with holes at the sides to allow aeration. Pack with the base of the plant to the sides of the baskets. Maintain turgidity by lining the basket with paper.

Costs and Return Analysis Per Hectare

ITEMS                                                                    AMOUNT (P)
I. VARIABLE COSTS
                                           P 36,635
A. Labor  (P150/MD)
Plowing                                                1,500
Harrowing                                             1,000
Bedding                                               1,500
Manure application (10 MD)                   1,500
Planting (10 MD)                                   1,500
Fertilization (2x) (4MD)                             600
Irrigation (16 MD)                                   2,400
Weeding (2X) (20 MD)                            3,000
Spraying (8 MD)                                    1,200
Harvesting (8 MD)                                  1,200
Postharvest operations(8MD)                  1,200
                Sub-total                            16,600
Materials
Seeds (3 kg/ha)                                      675
Animal manure (10 t)                          10,000
Fertilizer (46-0-0) (4 bags)                    1,860
Fuel & Oil                                           2,500
Miscellaneous                                     5,000
                Sub-total                          20,035

II. FIXED COSTS                                 5,423

Land rental                                          3,000
Depreciation
5 pcs. Scythe (1 yr)                                 38
2 pcs. Hoe ( 3 yrs)                                   50
2 pcs. Shovel (3 yrs)                                85
2 knapsack sprayers (5 yrs)                    250
Interest on Loans at 20% int. p.a.          2,000
TOTAL COSTS                                 42,058
GROSS INCOME a                50 ,000-75,000
NET INCOME                          7,942 –32,942

a With marketable yield of 10-15 t/ha at P5/kg


 Source: Pechay Production              Guide
            Info Bulletin #161/2000
            PCARRD

           Reproduced by:
           Department of            Agriculture
           REGION IV-B
           MiMaRoPa

 
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