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Kangkong Production Guide


Introduction
        Kangkong (ipomoea aquatic Forsk.) is a fast-growing creeping herb with succulent hollows stems rooting at the nodes in wet ground. The leaves and stalk may either be green or purplish. It grows well in both wet and dry places.

Uses and Nutritional Value
     Young leaves, petioles and stems are used as vegetable, cooked alone or with meat or fish. The vines are also used as fodder for cattle and pigs.

Each 100 g edible portion contains:

 
NUTRIENT                             AMOUNT
 Water                                       90.2 g
Protein                                     3.0 g
Fat                                           0.3 g
Carbohydrates                           5.0 g
Fiber                                         1.0 g
Ash                                          1.6 g
  Ca                                          81.0 mg
   Mg                                          52.0 mg
   Fe                                            3.3 mg
    Pro Vitamin A                     4000-10000
IU
     Vitamin C                        30.0 - 130.0 mg
Energy Value                        134.0 kJ

Production Management

Varieties
Lunting Pangako-Broad leaves
Pinchit-broad leaves,
Kangkong Tsina-Narrow leaves
Chinese Upland-narrow leaves
Climatic And Soil Requirements
       Upland kangkong can be grown from low to mid elevations throughout the year. Production is best in sandy to clay loam soil with a pH of 5.5-6.5.

Land Preparation
       Prepare land by plowing and harrowing twice. Prepare raised beds 1 m wide. Spread well-decomposed animal manure at the rate of 1-2 kg/m2 between beds. Make shallow lines 10 cm apart across the beds before sowing.

Propagation and Planting
       Kangkong can be grown in garden plots and containers. Sow seeds directly in rows or space evenly in containers.

      Seeds and cuttings are used for propagation. Plant densities may vary between 30-170 plants/m2.

Fertilization
      Apply 1-2 kg/m2 animal manure before sowing. Ten to fifteen days later, topdress with urea (46-0-0) or ammonium sulfate (21-0-0).

Irrigation
      Water the plants everyday or as needed. Mulch with rice straw or rice hull to cut watering by at least 50%.

Pest and Disease Management
      Caterpillars, whiteflies and aphids cause serious damage. Control by regular pruning of stems. Spray the plants with hot pepper extract or insecticidal soap to get rid of aphids.

      Regular pruning at three weeks interval can minimize white rust.

Harvesting
Harvest by cutting young shoots 20-50 days after sowing and subsequently at regular intervals. The plants are cut about 5-10 cm above ground. Uprooting can also be practiced at 20-30 days after sowing.

Seed Production
      Upland kangkong flowers in October and seeds start to mature from March to April. For small-scale production, harvest dried or mature fruits individually. Sun-dry until the husk is brittle enough for seed extraction. Each fruit contains 3-4 seeds.

      For large-scale seed production, harvest the entire plant when majority of the fruits are mature. Sun-dry for 3-5 days and thresh in the rice thresher. The hay or refuse may be fed to the thresher several times to maximize seeds yield. Dry extracted seeds to about 10-11% moisture content. Winnow to remove debris and poor quality seeds. Pack in moisture-proof containers. Label and store in a cool, dry place. There is no need to treat kangkong seeds with pesticides.

Costs and Return Analysis Per Hectare
ITEMS                                                            AMOUNT (P)
I. VARIABLE COSTS                                       P 134,150

A. Labor (P150/MD)
    Plowing                                      1,500
    Harrowing                                   1,000
    Bedding                                      1,500
    Manure application                       2,000
    Sowing                                       1,500
    Mulching w/ rice straw
    (10 MD;4 x/yr.)                             6,000
    Side-dressing (14MD/mo.
    For 10 mos.)                              21,000
    Irrigation (40 MD)                          6,000
    Weeding (35 MD)                         5,250
    Harvesting (10 MD);                     10,500
    7 harvests/yr.
   Miscellaneous (50 MD)                  7,500
               Sub-total                         63,750
   B. Materials
   Seeds (80 kg/ha) 30,400 Animal manure (20 t) 20,000
   Fuel & Oil 10,000
   Miscellaneous 10,000
              Sub-total                                              70,400
II. FIXED COSTS 22,463

Land rental                                      10,000
Depreciation
    5 pcs. Scythe (2 yrs)                         63
    5 pcs. Hoe ( 3 yrs)                           125
    3 pcs. Shovel (3 yrs)                          75
    5 pcs. Plastic crates (5 yrs)              200
Interest on Loans at 20% int. p.a.      12,000
TOTAL COSTS                              156,613
GROSS INCOME a           250 ,000-350,000
NET INCOME                      93,387-193,387
____________________________________
a With marketable yield of 50-70 t/ha at P5 /kg

 Source: Kangkong Production Guide
  Info Bulletin No. 163/2000

Reproduced By:

Department of Agriculture
REGION IV-B
MiMaRoPa

 
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