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Management of CORN
ranks second to rice, not only in terms of area devoted to its
production but it has been a staple food of about 20% of the
total population of the Filipinos.
from this, the green corn, boiled or roasted, is a popular snack
food & may also be cooked as vegetable or soup. Other by-products
of corn include corn flour and syrup, sugar and oil. In terms
of nutritive value corn is a richer source of vitamin A than
polished rice. It contains high amounts of mineral such as calcium
and phosphorous. Moreover, it is also a source of starch derivatives
for oil, fibers and other industrial uses.
also been used as an important ingredient in animal feeds.
Corn may be planted anytime of the year provided there is adequate
soil moisture., However, it is best to plant from May to June
during the wet season and from October to November during the
MANAGEMENT OF CORN
varieties that are high yielding, early maturing, tolerant to
pests and diseases, and adopted to the climatic conditions of
can also be eliminated by cultivation before planting. Remove
weed seeds before they produce seeds to reduce sources of weeds
seeds in the succeeding cropping season.
can be employed through the use of selective and non-selective
herbicides. Non-selective herbicides kill all vegetation they
may come in contact with. Apply this kind of herbicides before
crop emergence or immediately after planting or spraying between
herbicides are effective against grasses and to some extent sedges
and broad leaf weeds. However, it is not advisable to walk or
roam around the sprayed area because weeds will grow on the footprints.
post-emergence herbicides when both the crop and weeds have already
Otherwise, use 4 bags of complete fertilizer (14-14-14) per hectare
as basal application in the furrows & cover the fertilizer
with a thin layer soil, about 2 cm thick. After 25-30 days of
planting, side dress with bags of ammonium sulfate or 2 bags
of urea. Cover the fertilizer immediately by shallow hilling-up.
wet season, split application of nitrogen (N) fertilizer is recommended.
Apply all the needed phosphorous and potassium and half of the
recommended amount of N in the furrows before planting. Side
dress the other half of N at least 4-5 cm away from the base
of the plant 20-24 days after emergence or immediately before
hilling-up when there is a right soil moisture. To attain higher
yields, apply animal manures and crop residues just before land
Due to the possibility of drought
during the dry season, apply all the recommended amount of fertilizer
in the furrows just before planting to provide all the needed
nutrients to the plants. However, if supplemental irrigation
is available, follow the application of fertilizer for the wet
season. Cover the fertilizer with 2-4 cm soil to prevent seed
injury. Organic fertilizer or compost may be applied in addition
to the recommended inorganic fertilizer.
attain an optimum plant population density of 50,000-60,000,
about 16-18 kg of hybrid seeds or 18-20 kg Open Pollinated Variety
seeds per hectare are needed. Space the furrows with 75 cm interval.
Plant seeds about 3-5 cm deep when the soil moisture is just
right for planting, then cover the seeds with soil. Thin seedlings
to one plant per hill about 7 -10 days after emergence.
in corn production depends on proper care and maintenance of
the crop throughout its life cycle. (Refer to the Management
Guide for the Various Growth Stages of the Corn Plant).
improves soil tilts and control weeds. Off-bar between furrows
to aerate medium-textured or heavy soils 22-25 days after planting.
Hilling-up 27-30 days after planting or just after side dressing
the remaining recommended amount of nitrogen. If the field
is weedy, use an inter-row cultivator (paragut) or employ line
or excessive soil moisture is a limiting factor in corn production.
Excess in the root zone within 36 hours injures the plants.
soil moisture during the reproductive stage decreases yield from
20-30 per cent. When there is no adequate moisture during tasseling
stage, irrigate the cornfield by "flush irrigation"
or sprinkler irrigation may also be used in elevated or sandy
loam soil. In flat rolling furrow irrigation is advisable.
optimize yield during the critical period- at 28-35 days after
planting, weeds should be removed. After this period, weeds may
no longer reduce crop yield significantly.
can be effectively controlled by a combination of two or more
practices. It depends on weeds species present, availability
and comparative cost of control to be employed.
of the common weed controls are: