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Cassava (Kamoteng Kahoy, Balingoy)
is a perennial shrub, which sometimes reaches the size of a small
tree. Its stems vary in color from pale to dirty white to brown
marked by numerous nodes formed by scars left by fallen leaves.
Pale to dark green leaves are fan-shaped, with 5 to 9 lobes.
of cassava plants are few and shallow and some become storage
roots. These are clustered around the base of the plant and extend
about 60 cm on all sides. It is for these roots, which contain
from 15 to 40 percent starch that the crop is cultivated.
favorable conditions, a single root may weigh as much as four
(4) kilos. The number of roots per plant at harvest varies from
2 to7 each averaging 27.7 to 43.3 cm long and from 4.5 to 7.4
cm in diameter.
Vit. A (ug)
Vit. C (mg)
only high yielding varieties and according to needs. For starch,
VC-1, VC-2, VC-3, Datu, Lakan or Golden Yellow can be used. For
food, or feeds, use only Lakan or Golden yellow varieties.
is a tropical and sub-tropical plant. It grows in regions with
more or less evenly distributed rainfall through out the year.
An ambient temperature that ranges from 25- 300c.
Select an open field with
sandy loam or clay loam soil. Be sure that the area is not prone
to water logging; it must be a well-drained soil. Also consider
the soil fertility with pH range of 5.5-6.5.
thrives at sea level to 845 meters above the sea level. It grows
best when planted at the start of the rainy season.
field by plowing two to three times, followed by harrowing when
there is enough soil moisture. Make ridges with 15-20 cm high
and 75-100 cm distance between furrows.
of Planting Materials
only fresh, mature or healthy stems. Fresh if the latex or sap
comes out within six (6) seconds after cutting. Mature if the
diameter of the pith or cork is not more than half the diameter
of the cortex. Healthy if it is pest free and the diameter of
the stem is not less than 1.5 cm.
stalk from a healthy stand, which is at least eight (8) months
old. Rouge out other varieties that are mixed with other the
recommended varieties; if any. Use a saw or sharp bolo to prepare
cuttings 20-30 cm long.
Keep the stalk for not more
than five days, under shade in upright position. Handle carefully;
don't throw the cuttings to avoid damage to the nodes. Don't
use cuttings stored for more than five days.
cuttings in furrows one meter apart, each cutting set at .75
to 1 meter apart between ridges and 0.50 to 0.75 cm between hills.
Replant missing hills 2 weeks after planting. Weed cassava plant
within 2 months after planting.
Plant in a slanting position
at an angle of 45 when the soil is fairly dry, and in vertical
position when planting is done during the wet season, at least
15 cm of the cutting should be buried or covered with soil.
the soil prior to planting to determine the amount and kind of
fertilizer needed. The general recommendation for soil, which
have not been analyzed, is eight (8) sacks of complete (14-14-14)
fertilizer per hectare. Apply fertilizer 2-6 weeks after planting
at 5-10 cm depth and 15-20 cm away from the plant. The use of
compost or organic fertilizer is highly recommended.
least 80% of failed cropping of cassava is due to inadequate
weeding. Cultivate when weeds begin to grow. Weed the plant within
two (2) months after planting. If possible, do off barring and
spot weeding 3-4 weeks after planting to effectively control
weeds. Then weed the plant 4-5 weeks after planting. Hill-up
ridges 7-8 weeks after planting followed by spot weeding.
is no serious pest that attacks the cassava plant and the use
of chemicals is not practical or economical. To avoid the attack
of pests, apply crop rotation or burn all the infested or infected
Extract Found Most Effective To Protect Cassava And Ubi Seed
show that when cassava or kamoteng kahoy seed pieces (planting
materials) are infested with the white fish scale, a major pest
cassava, the populations of the pest increase rapidly causing
yield loss reaching as high as 20%.
On the other hand, stored
yam or "ubi" tubers infested with mealy bugs and scale
insects shriveled and germination efficiency is reduced.
The most immediate form of
control is the use of chemical pesticides. But, very few farmers
treat their seed pieces (planting materials) with chemical pesticides
because these are very expensive and have dangerous side effects.
Researchers at the Visayas
College of Agriculture (VISCA) in Baybay, Leyte studied several
plant species with pesticidal properties to find a cheap, readily
available, and environmentally safe substitute for chemical pesticides.
VISCA researchers found that
the plants evaluated and bioassayed, the water-based extract
from the tuber of the Asiatic bitter yam (dioscorahispida dennst)
was found the most effective in the pre-planting treatment of
cassava cuttings and yam stetts (planting materials).
Asiatic bitter yam or intoxicating
yam known as "Nami" in Tagalog, "Gayos" in
Bisaya, and "Karot" in Iluko is the chief famine food
of tropical Asia. Its tuber is poisonous, having a high content
alkaloid dioscorine. In fact, a piece of "Nami" as
big as an apple is sufficient to kill a man.
The poison in "Nami"
is often extracted and used as bait for animals or for eliminating
unwanted fish from fishponds. The poison, however, may be removed
by soaking the slices of granulated boiled tubers in running
water for an extended period or repeated changes of salt water.
These are the methods used in tropical Asia.
Evaluation on the use of
"Nami" against the insect pests attacking stored yam,
namely, the coffee bean weevil and the yam scale showed that
mortality of the weevil increased with higher extract concentrations
while toxicity was enhanced by prolonging the soaking period.
Field evaluation of the effectiveness
of "Nami" and dimethoate against scale insect showed
comparable results. "Nami" treated setts, however,
turned in the highest root yield and net profit.
is a highly perishable crop. It starts to deteriorate as early
as one to three days after harvest see harvest cassava at the
right time and in the proper way. To prolong its shell-life,
store it properly.
Harvest cassava at full maturity
or 6-7 months after planting. Harvesting too early results in
low yield and poor eating quality.
On the other hand, leaving
the roots too long in the soil expose them to pests. It also
ties the land unnecessarily to one crop.
Do not harvest cassava right
after a heavy rain or when the soil is too wet.
At this time, the roots have
high water content which make them difficult to store.
Also, wet soil particles
would stick easily to the roots especially if the soil is clayey,
thus making the roots hard to clean.
Harvest cassava during relatively
dry weather so that you can easily remove the soil particles
from the roots.
the soil is compact, loosen it first. Use a wooden tool because
this can cause lesser root damage than metal tools.
Pull the plant gently and
don't drag the roots. Dragging can cause bruises and cuts to
roots, which may lead to early deterioration.
In separating the roots from
the plant, do not just break it off because this method can also
cause root damage.
Instead, separate the roots
from the stem using a sharp knife or bolo. Cut each as close
to the stem as possible
After harvesting, don't leave
the roots under the sun. Too much heat causes weight loss and
early root deterioration.
are several methods of storing cassava. Among these are soil
storage method and storage of roots in wooden crates.
Select suitable storage site,
which is well drained, preferably shaded, and slightly sloping.
Do not keep cassava in a
waterlogged area because roots will decay easily.
In the selected area, dig
trenches measuring one meter in width and 30-40 cm in depth.
The length of the trench varies according to the volume of roots
to store. A meter long trench can contain 70-80 kg roots.
Dig the trenches in such
a way that their length will be running downhill. At the lower
end of the trench, make a drainage canal, which should be at
least 20 cm wide and 5 cm to 10 cm deeper than the storage trench.
Arrange mature, undamaged
roots inside the trenches. Cover each layer of roots with soil,
preferably riversand or seasand. If these types of soil are not
too wet. Absolutely, do not use heavy wet clay to cover the roots
because this type of soil could just enhance root deterioration.
of Cassava Chips
the roots with water to remove soil particles and other foreign
matter that may contribute to low quality of the end products.
Cut the woody portion of the roots using a sharp knife or bolo.
Use the sharp knife or bolo
to peel the roots intended for the manufacture of starch or flour.
Roots for the animal feeds need not be peeled, however.
Cut the roots into thin slices
not more than 5 mm thick.
the root on a slanting position in a clean chopping board or
any piece of wood if to be used in feed formulation. Slice thinly
using a sharp knife or bolo.
bamboo or other woven mats on a flat cleared ground fully exposed
to sunlight. Spread the chips evenly but not too thickly on the
When dried chips are not
milled right away, store them properly to prevent moisture re-absorption.
Place the chips either in pails with cover or sacks with cellophane
lining (like thoroughly washed fertilizer sacks), in jute sacks
or containers that can be closed
Flour and Starch
Use tubers that are not fibrous,
about 10 months old and not later than 16 months old after planting.
They should be used within 24 hours after harvesting.
1. Wash, peel and re-wash tuber after peeling.
2. Slice thinly or shred by means of a papaya shredder.
3. Soak or wash in enough water to remove part of the starch
and should be allowed to settle. Drain the shredded
4. Line a "bilao" or basket with sinamay cloth and
spread the shredded cassava. Dry until crisp or brittle.
5. Grind through a cornmeal grinder and pass through a No. 120-mesh
sieve. This is the cassava flour. Pack
in airtight container, preferably plastic bags and seal.
6. The water where the cassava was soaked contains the starch
(step 3). Decant off the water and completely
dry the starch under the sun. Pack in dry containers.
1 cup grated fresh cassava
½ cup scraped "buko"
½ cup pure coconut
3 tbsp melted shortening
2 pcs egg
¾ cup sugar
4 tsp grated cheese
egg; add sugar, melted butter, and coconut milk. Mix cassava
and coconut milk. Add 2 tbsp cheese and mix well. Line a round
pan with banana leaves and pours in the mixture. Bake in moderate
"palayok oven". When almost brown, brush with butter
and sprinkle top with a little sugar and remaining cheese and
bake further until golden brown.
1 cup cassava flour
1 cup brown sugar
1½ cups water
1 tsp lye
few drops of yellow food
color or achuete
1. In a mixing bowl, blend all the ingredients until thoroughly
2. Pour into cuchinta molders or ungreased muffin tins.
3. Steam for 5 to 20 minutes.
4. Let it cool for 5 minutes and remove from pans.
6. Serve with grated coconut.
1 ¾ cups cassava flour
1 ¾ cups wheat flour
1 cup butter
2 cups sugar
8 pcs egg less two (2) whites
1 cup diluted milk
4 tsp baking powder
flour separately; measure mix and add baking powder. Sift three
(3) times. Cream butter, add sugar. When fine, beat in the egg
yolk one at a time. Cream well until fine and fluffy. Add sifted
flour mixture alternately with milk. Fold well-beaten egg whites
in the butter mixture. Pour in well-greased nine (9) inch
baking pans. Bake for 20-25 minutes.
1 ½ cup cassava flour
¼ cup butter and one
cup brown sugar
6 pcs eggs
1 cup cugar
6 slices canned pineapples
6 halves canned peaches or
butter, brown sugar and ½ cup syrup of the canned fruits
in a deep baking pan. Place over slow fire until brown sugar
is melted. Remove from the fire. Arrange fruits in the pan. Separate
the yolks from whites of eggs. Beat egg whites with ½
cup sugar until stiff. Beat egg yolk until fluffy adding the
other half of the sugar and two (2) tablespoons of water with
calamansi juice. Beat both mixtures together. Fold in flour.
Pour butter over fruit in pan. Bake in moderate oven. When done,
turn upside down on cake plate.
Department of Agriculture