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(Ampalaya) Production Guide
gourd or ampalaya (Momordica charantia L.) belongs to the family
Cucurbitaceae. It is also known as paria (Ilocano,Indonesia),
palia (Bisaya), peria (Malaysia); and balsam pear (English).
is high in vitamins and an excellent source of iron and calcium.
Fruits, young shoots and flowers are used as vegetables. It is
also known to cure diabetes, arthritis, rheumatism, asthma, warts,
abscesses and ulcers.
production volume in 1997 was 43,043 t with the biggest growers
in Regions II & IV. These are generally two types being grown:
the Sta. Rita, which is long, dark green & less warty; and
the pinakbet type, which is short, small, warty and very bitter.
The pale and white varieties popular in other Southeast Asian
countries are not preferred locally.
Sta. Rita (strains) 70-75
Sta. Isabel 70-75
Jade Star (A,L,XL) 60-70
and Soil Requirements
gourd grows best in low elevation areas anytime of the year.
It can also be grown in mid elevation. Bitter gourd grows well
in any type of soil with a pH of 5.5-6.5. Production is best,
however, in sandy loam soil.
the soil thoroughly by plowing all harrowing twice. Make furrows
3 m apart. Apply 5 t/ha well-decomposed animal manure two weeks
gourd can be direct seeded or transplanted. A 1-ha production
areas requires 2-3 kg seeds. Crack seed coat to facilitate water
absorption. Soak seeds in water overnight or wrap in cheesecloth.
Transplant the following day or at radicle break. Spacing is
3 m between rows and 30 cm between hills. If pre-germinated or
transplanted, use only one seed per hill.
planting, apply complete fertilizer (14-14-14) at the rate of
15-20 g/hill. During the dry season, side-dress 10-20 g/hill
urea (46-0-0) and muriate of potash (0-0-60) once a month. However
during the wet season, side dress- 5-10 g/hill urea and muriate
of potash every two weeks.
Vine Training and Pruning
gourd grows best with overhead trellis. Use bamboo or ipil-ipil
posts at 3m x 3m spacing. Construct vertical trellis (along he
row) and overhead trellis with a combination of GI wire and abaca
twine or nylon string. Spacing of 1.5 m between rows and 0.75
cm between hills may also be used.
the vines on the vertical trellis. Lateral shoots may be pruned,
leaving only the main vine. Remove all female flowers below the
overhead trellis. Allow branching and fruiting on the overhead
trellis. Fruits may also be allowed to form just above the 10th
and Disease Management
Spray with hot pepper extract
or soap solution
Cucurbit beetle Spread
wood ash; spray carbamates
with hot pepper extract or Bascillus thuringiensis
Leaf folders Collect
Fruit fly Plastic
bagging; fruit fly attractant
Bacterial wilt Sanitation;avoidance
Downy mildew Remove
infected leaves; spray with mancozeb, Acrobat;use compost
tea (Compost tea is prepared by fermenting compost for
10-14 days. The effluent is sprayed to control foliar diseases).
Little leaf Sanitation;crop
rotation; use Borax
when the fruits are green, shiny and have attained full ssize.
This is about 15-20 days from poliination or 60-95 days from
planting. Priming can be done at 2-3 days interval. Harvesting
can be done continuously for 2-3 months.
according to market standards, and remove damaged fruits. Pack
in plastic or bamboo crates lined with newspaper or bamboo leaves.
Under this condition, fruits can be kept for 2-3 days. It can
be stored at 4oC for three weeks.
and Return Analysis Per Hectare
I. VARIABLE COSTS
A. Labor (P150/MD)
(10 MD 1,000
Planting (2 MD)
Mulching w/ rice
(8 MD) 1,200
basal (2 MD) & 2,100
Spraying ( 30
Weeding (20 MD)
(20 MD) 3,000
Seeds (3 kg//ha)
(5 bags) 1,750
( 8 bags) 3,720
(2 bags) 1,200
wire (300 kg); 4 uses 12,000
twine (200 rolls) 8,000
Fuel & Oil
Land rental 7,500
pcs. Scythe (2 yrs)
pcs. Hoe ( 3 yrs) 125
pcs. Shovel (3 yrs)
knapsack sprayers (5 yrs)
Interest on Loans at 20% int. p.a. 12,000
TOTAL COSTS 135,833
NET INCOME 14,167
With marketable yield of 10-15 t/ha at P15/kg