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Production Guide


         Okra (Abelmochus esculentus L. Moench) is also known as saluyot a bunga ( Ilocano) and kaluyot (Ifugao). It is mainly grown for its young immature fruits which are consumed raw, or cooked (fried,broiled,boiled, or blanched). It is common ingredient in soup and sauces. The fruit can be dried or picked. The leaves are sometimes use as spinach and the seeds as a substitute for coffee.

         Okra is grown in 3,138 ha ( Bureau of agricultural and Statistics 2005) all over the country. The country is also growing okra for export to Japan about 200 ha, mainly in Tarlac In 2006, the estimated export value is US$ 7M at the average export price of US$ 11-12/box of 4 kg net weight.

Nutritional Value

Per 100 g edible portion,the fruits contain:

    Properties                                                                                                               Amount

       Water (g)                                                                                                               90.0
       Protein (g)                                                                                                              2.0
       Fiber (g)                                                                                                                 1.0
       Carbohydrates (g)                                                                                                   7.0
       Calcuim (g)                                                                                                          70-90
       Energy Value (kl)                                                                                                 145.0

Source: Siemonsma, J.S. and Peluek,K. (Editor). 1994. PROSEA
             Handbook No. 8.Vegetables.Pudoc,Wageningen. 1993/Prosea, Bogo

Production Management

Commercial Varieties
       Camiling Smooth
       Green Light
       Smoth Green

Soil and Climate Requirements

       Okra can be grown from lo -to mid- elevation areas throughout the year.However, production is best during long warm season in sandy loam soil with pH 5.5-7.0.

Land Preparation

       Plow and harrow the field twice. Make plots 0.75 m wide for two row planting. Disyabnce between rows is 0.75 m. Apply 1 kg/m2 fully decomposed chicken manure. For clay soils, incorporate rice hull and composed liberally.


        Plant Okra by direct seeding. About 3 kg seeds are required per hectare. Soak the seeds in the warm water overnight to the hasten germination. Air dry . Soe 2-3 seeds/hill, 1 cm deep with a distance of 20 cm between hills and 25 cm between rows. Maintain only 2 seedlings/hill. Pull out excess seedling and repalnt missing hills.


        Apply 1kg/m2 fully decomposed chicken manure during bed preparation. At planting 19g/hill 14-14-14 as basal fertilization. Thirty days after emergence, sidedress with 10 G/hill 46-0-0.

Water Management

        Water the plants regularly. Use furrow irrigation or depending on the soil moisture and season.

Pest and Desease Mangement

        Major pest of okra are green leafhoppers,fruit and stem borer, jassid and stink bug. To minimize pest incedent, avoid monocropping. Plant different crops like corn and legumes arund the area. Grow aromatic crops such as marigold, ginger,basil, lemon grass and, alluim to repel insects. Grow folowering plants kike sunflower, cosmos, and zinnia as border rows to attract beneficial insects. Spray pesticide to recommended rates.

        To control desease such as Cercospora blight,powdery mildew, and fruits rot, remove infected plants parts, spray with compost tea and tea manure, prune excess leaves to improve air circulation, and water in the morning. Intercrop with marigold to minimized root damage due to nematodes.

        To preapre compost tea, mix one cup compost with &#188 cup molasses.Place the mixture in used stockings and tie into a ball. Soak the compost tea bag in 18.9 L water in a colored jar placed under the sun. The mixture is ready for used as spray against blight and mildew after soaking for 4 hrs and aginst root after soaking for 24 hrs. To prepare tea manure, soak &#190 suck dry cow/horse manure in a palstic drum filled with 189.25 L water and ferment for seven days.


       Okra pods are ready for harvest when these about 10-12 cm long or while the pod is young,tender and snappy. Use sharp konife or pruning shears during harvesting. The young pods should be gathered everyday.

       Store pods at 10° and 90- 95% relative humidity to avoid wilting. The pod s are then graded according to market standard and packed in a plastic crates or in cardborad trays covered with plastic film.

       To facilitate harvesting and control, prune all the leaves below the lowest fruit at regular intervals. A well manage okra can be harvested 40 - 45 times in one cropping season.

After harvest, gather severely damage fruit. They can be include in a compost pile or made into a ferrmented fruit juice. To prepare, mix chopped fruits with equal amount of molasses or brown sugar. After one week of fermentation, extract the juice. Apply as a opoliar fertilizer at 1 tbsp/3.785 L water during the watering the flowering and fruiting stages.

Cost and Return Analysis Per Hectare

 ITEM                                                                                                                 AMOUNT
. Labor ( @ P.220.00/MD; P.440.00/MAD
    Plowing (5MAD)                                                                                               2,200.00
    Harrowing ( 3MAD)                                                                                           1,320.00
    Furrowing (5MAD)                                                                                            2,200.00
    Manure application (6MD)                                                                                 1,320.00
    Fertilization; basal (2MD), sidedress (10MD)                                                       2,640.00
    Planting (2MD)                                                                                                    440.00
    Irrigation (2MD)                                                                                                 5,280.00
   Thinning (4MD)                                                                                                    880.00
    Weeding (15MD)                                                                                                   3,300
    Hilling-up (3MAD)                                                                                               6,60.00
    Irrigation (24MD)                                                                                               5,280.00
    Spraying (8MD)                                                                                                1,760.00
    Harvesting (40 MD)                                                                                           8,800.00
    Sorting/Packaging (40MD)                                                                                 8,000.00
    Miscellaneous activities                                                                                   10,000.00
    Subtotal                                                                                                         50,040.00

B. Materials
    Seeds (3 kg/ha)                                                                                                1,650.00
    Animal manure (10t)                                                                                        10,000.00
    Fertilizer: 14-14-14 (7 bags)                                                                               6,650.00
                   46-0-0 (4 bags)                                                                                  4,200.00
    Pesticides                                                                                                      10,000.00
    Miscellaneous                                                                                                  5,000.00
    Subtotal                                                                                                         37,500.00

    Subtotal ( A+B )                                                                                              87,540.00

C. Contingencies ( 15% )                                                                                     13,131.00

GRAND TOTAL                                                                                                 100,671.00
Gross Income                                                                                144,000.00 - 180,000.00
Net Income                                                                                         43,329.00-79,329.00

With marketable yield of 12-15t/ha at a farmgate price of P12.00/kg.
prepared by:
Dr. Rodel G. Maghirang University Researcher
Ms. Ma. Luisa D. Guevarra, University institute Associate I
Ms. Gloria S. Rodulfo, Agricultural technician II
      Crop Genitics and Plant Breeding Division
      Crop Science Cluster - Institute of Plant Breeding  College of Agriculture
      University of the Philippines Los Baños College 4031, Laguna

Editorial Production Staff:

Dr. Joselyn E. Eusebio,
 Director, CRD - PCARRD
Dr. Ester L. Lopez, Assistant Director, CRD - PCARRD
Mr. Elmer E. Enicola, Cluster Chair for Vegetables, Legumes and Rootcrop,
PCARRD and University Research, Institute of Plant Breeding
Ms. Josefina L. Acedera-Atienza, Commodity Specialist, CRD-PCARRD
Mr. Joel Eneristo A. Joven, Editor, ACD-PCARRD
Mr. Ervin M. Naval, Administrative Staff, CRD- PCARRD
Mr. Simeon R. Manahan, Jr., Layout Artist, ACD-PCARRD

For more information, Please contact:

      The Executive Director
      PCARRD, Los Baños 4030, Laguna
      Tel. Nos. (049) 536-0014 to 20
      Fax No. (049) 536-0016/536-7922
      E-mail : pcarrd@pcarrd.dost.gov.ph
      Website: http://www.pcarrd.dost.gov.ph